In [38]:

```
import numpy as np
import numpy.linalg as la
```

In [39]:

```
A = np.random.randn(3, 3)
```

Let's start from regular old (modified) Gram-Schmidt:

In [57]:

```
Q = np.zeros(A.shape)
q = A[:, 0]
Q[:, 0] = q/la.norm(q)
# -----------
q = A[:, 1]
coeff = np.dot(Q[:, 0], q)
q = q - coeff*Q[:, 0]
Q[:, 1] = q/la.norm(q)
# -----------
q = A[:, 2]
coeff = np.dot(Q[:, 0], q)
q = q - coeff*Q[:, 0]
coeff = np.dot(Q[:, 1], q)
q = q - coeff*Q[:, 1]
Q[:, 2] = q/la.norm(q)
```

In [52]:

```
Q.dot(Q.T)
```

Out[52]:

Now we want to keep track of what vector got added to what other vector, in the style of an elimination matrix.

Let's call that matrix $R$.

- Would it be $A=QR$ or $A=RQ$? Why?
- Where are $R$'s nonzeros?

In [56]:

```
R = np.zeros((A.shape[0], A.shape[0]))
```

In [54]:

```
Q = np.zeros(A.shape)
q = A[:, 0]
Q[:, 0] = q/la.norm(q)
R[0,0] = la.norm(q)
# -----------
q = A[:, 1]
coeff = np.dot(Q[:, 0], q)
R[0,1] = coeff
q = q - coeff*Q[:, 0]
Q[:, 1] = q/la.norm(q)
R[1,1] = la.norm(q)
# -----------
q = A[:, 2]
coeff = np.dot(Q[:, 0], q)
R[0,2] = coeff
q = q - coeff*Q[:, 0]
coeff = np.dot(Q[:, 1], q)
R[1,2] = coeff
q = q- coeff*Q[:, 1]
Q[:, 2] = q/la.norm(q)
R[2,2] = la.norm(q)
```

In [55]:

```
R
```

Out[55]:

In [48]:

```
la.norm(Q.dot(R) - A)
```

Out[48]:

This is called QR factorization.

- When does it break?
- Does it need something like pivoting?
- Can we use it for something?